Norma Clara Ware
Norma Clara Ware, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Medicine

Research Interests

  • Social and behavioral dimensions of HIV treatment and prevention in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Delivery of health care in settings of economic scarcity
  • Use of antiretrovirals to prevent HIV/AIDS acquisition
  • Use of qualitative methods for health research

Current Projects

  • Optimizing Delivery of ART/PrEP for HIV Prevention through Qualitative Research
  • HIV self-testing and PrEP to increase treatment and prevention uptake among male partners and improve postpartum ART use in PMTCT B+ programs in Uganda
  • Optimizing ART delivery through community-based ART initiation, delivery, and monitoring in South Africa and Uganda
  • Integrated PrEP and ART delivered in Ugandan public health clinics to improve HIV and ART outcomes for HIV serodiscordant couples
  • Real World Adherence to PrEP in HIV Serodiscordant African Couples
  • Antiretroviral therapy adherence in early stage HIV disease

Norma C. Ware is a medical anthropologist and associate professor in the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Dr. Ware conducts research on social and behavioral dimensions of HIV treatment and prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. Current research topics include: (1) evaluation of an integrated strategy for delivering antiretroviral therapy (ART) and antiretrovirals for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to East African HIV serodiscordant couples; (2) evaluation of community-based HIV testing and ART delivery in South Africa and Uganda; (3) use of HIV self-testing and PrEP to facilitate linkage to HIV treatment and prevention services for male partners of HIV-infected pregnant women in Uganda; (4) adherence to antiretroviral medication for HIV prevention; and (5) adherence to antiretroviral therapy in early stage HIV disease. In carrying out her research, Dr. Ware partners with the Center for Global Health at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA; the International Clinical Research Center at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA; the Infectious Diseases Institute of Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; Jos University Teacing Hospital, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria; Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; and the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation, Cape Town, South Africa. Dr. Ware teaches at Harvard Medical School and collaborates widely with colleagues interested in the application of qualitative methods to research on health. She also mentors junior investigators.


Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Beyond HIV prevention: everyday life priorities and demand for PrEP among Ugandan HIV serodiscordant couples.
Authors: Authors: Nakku-Joloba E, Pisarski EE, Wyatt MA, Muwonge TR, Asiimwe S, Celum CL, Baeten JM, Katabira ET, Ware NC.
J Int AIDS Soc
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Health System Factors Constrain HIV Care Providers in Delivering High-Quality Care: Perceptions from a Qualitative Study of Providers in Western Kenya.
Authors: Authors: Genberg B, Wachira J, Kafu C, Wilson I, Koech B, Kamene R, Akinyi J, Knight J, Braitstein P, Ware N.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care
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Acceptability and Feasibility of Real-Time Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Interventions in Rural Uganda: Mixed-Method Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.
Authors: Authors: Musiimenta A, Atukunda EC, Tumuhimbise W, Pisarski EE, Tam M, Wyatt MA, Ware NC, Haberer JE.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth
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Integrated delivery of antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis to HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in East Africa: a qualitative evaluation study in Uganda.
Authors: Authors: Ware NC, Pisarski EE, Nakku-Joloba E, Wyatt MA, Muwonge TR, Turyameeba B, Asiimwe SB, Heffron RA, Baeten JM, Celum CL, Katabira ET.
J Int AIDS Soc
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Retention in Differentiated Care: Multiple Measures Analysis for a Decentralized HIV Care and Treatment Program in North Central Nigeria.
Authors: Authors: Agaba PA, Genberg BL, Sagay AS, Agbaji OO, Meloni ST, Dadem NY, Kolawole GO, Okonkwo P, Kanki PJ, Ware NC.
J AIDS Clin Res
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Messaging Circumstances and Economic Pressures as Influences on Linkage to Medical Male Circumcision following Community-Based HIV Testing for Men in Rural Southwest Uganda: A Qualitative Study.
Authors: Authors: Gilbert HN, Wyatt MA, Asiimwe S, Turyamureeba B, Tumwesigye E, Van Rooyen H, Barnabas RV, Celum CL, Ware NC.
AIDS Res Treat
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A qualitative approach to understand antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence for refugees living in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in Uganda.
Authors: Authors: O'Laughlin KN, Rouhani SA, Kasozi J, Greenwald KE, Perkons NR, Faustin ZM, Bassett IV, Ware NC.
Confl Health
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Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-negative persons with partners living with HIV: uptake, use, and effectiveness in an open-label demonstration project in East Africa.
Authors: Authors: Heffron R, Ngure K, Odoyo J, Bulya N, Tindimwebwa E, Hong T, Kidoguchi L, Donnell D, Mugo NR, Bukusi EA, Katabira E, Asiimwe S, Morton J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Mujugira A, Haberer JE, Ware NC, Wyatt MA, Marzinke MA, Frenkel LM, Celum C, Baeten JM.
Gates Open Res
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The Technology Acceptance Model for Resource-Limited Settings (TAM-RLS): A Novel Framework for Mobile Health Interventions Targeted to Low-Literacy End-Users in Resource-Limited Settings.
Authors: Authors: Campbell JI, Aturinda I, Mwesigwa E, Burns B, Santorino D, Haberer JE, Bangsberg DR, Holden RJ, Ware NC, Siedner MJ.
AIDS Behav
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The role of social support on HIV testing and treatment adherence: A qualitative study of HIV-infected refugees in southwestern Uganda.
Authors: Authors: Rouhani SA, O'Laughlin KN, Faustin ZM, Tsai AC, Kasozi J, Ware NC.
Glob Public Health
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