Dec 2020

  • How Biden can use 'Covid diplomacy' to rein in North Korea's nuclear program
    12 09, 2020  

    Author: Kee Park

    Five hours. That's how long the man standing behind the anesthesia screen at North Korea's top university hospital had been squeezing the football-sized balloon, every three seconds, to push oxygen into the lungs of the patient. Even at Pyongyang Medical College, ventilators are rare.

    CNN »

  • Poverty, depression, and anxiety: Causal evidence and mechanisms.

    Science (New York, N.Y.)

    Dec 11, 2020 370 (6522)

    Vol. 370, Issue 6522,

    Authors: Ridley M, Rao G, Schilbach F, Patel V

    Why are people who live in poverty disproportionately affected by mental illness? We review the interdisciplinary evidence of the bidirectional causal relationship between poverty and common mental illnesses-depression and anxiety-and the underlying mechanisms. Research shows that mental illness reduces employment and therefore income, and that psychological interventions generate economic gains. Similarly, negative economic shocks cause mental illness, and antipoverty programs such as cash transfers improve mental health. A crucial step toward the design of effective policies is to better understand the mechanisms underlying these causal effects.

    PubMed »

  • Reimagining India's health system: a Lancet Citizens' Commission.

    Lancet (London, England)

    Dec 10, 2020

    Authors: Patel V, Mazumdar-Shaw K, Kang G, Das P, Khanna T

    PubMed »

Nov 2020

  • Data for action on early childhood development.

    Lancet (London, England)

    Nov 19, 2020

    Authors: Richter LM, Cappa C, Issa G, Lu C, Petrowski N, Naicker SN

    Early childhood development (ECD) in the first few years of life lays the foundation for a lifetime's mental and physical health, education, labour market productivity, and wellbeing.

    PubMed »

Oct 2020

  • Trustworthiness before Trust — Covid-19 Vaccine Trials and the Black Community

    N Engl J Med

    2020 Oct 16.
    doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2030033. Online ahead of print.

    Authors: Rueben C Warren, Lachlan Forrow, David Augustin Hodge Sr., Robert D. Truong

    Abstract: When Covid-19 vaccines are eventually approved by the FDA, their success in Black and other communities will depend on whether members of these communities not only trust that they are safe and effective, but also believe that the organizations offering them are trustworthy. 

    PubMed »

  • Achieving coordinated national immunity and cholera elimination in Haiti through vaccination: a modelling study.

    The Lancet. Global health
    10 09, 2019 8 (8) e1081-e1089
    Vol. 8, Issue 8, Medline Page e1081-e1089

    Authors: Lee EC, Chao DL, Lemaitre JC, Matrajt L, Pasetto D, Perez-Saez J, Finger F, Rinaldo A, Sugimoto JD, Halloran ME, Longini IM, Ternier R, Vissieres K, Azman AS, Lessler J, Ivers LC

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Good Fund, Institute for Disease Modeling, Swiss National Science Foundation, and US National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed »

  • Spatial–temporal trends in forced migrant mortality, 2014–2018

    BMJ Global Health
    10 09, 2019 8 (8) e1081-e1089
    Vol. 8, Issue 8, Medline Page e1081-e1089

    Authors: Danielle N. Poole, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier, Till Bärnighausen, Stéphane Verguet, Marcia C Castro


    Introduction The identification of spatial–temporal clusters of forced migrant mortality is urgently needed to inform preventative policies and humanitarian response. As a first step towards understanding the geography of forced migrant mortality, this study investigates spatial–temporal patterns in death at a global scale.

    Methods We used information on the location and dates of forced migrant deaths reported in the International Organization for Migration’s Missing Migrant Project from 2014 to 2018. Kulldorff’s spatial–temporal and seasonal scans were used to detect spatial–temporal and temporal heterogeneity in mortality.

    Results A total of 16 314 deaths were reported during the study period. A preponderance of deaths occurred at sea each year (range 26%–54% across 5 years). Twelve spatial–temporal clusters of forced migrant mortality were detected by maximum likelihood testing. Annually, the period of August–October was associated with a 40-percentage-point increase in the risk of mortality, relative to other time periods.

    Conclusions Death during forced migration occurs close to national borders and during periods of intense conflict. This evidence may inform the design of policies and targeting of interventions to prevent forced migration-related deaths.

    BMJ Global Health 2020;5:e002885.

    BMJ Global Health »

  • Burden of non-communicable diseases from infectious causes in 2017: a modelling study.

    The Lancet. Global health

    Oct 21, 2020

    Authors: Coates MM, Kintu A, Gupta N, Wroe EB, Adler AJ, Kwan GF, Park PH, Rajbhandari R, Byrne AL, Casey DC, Bukhman G


    Leona M and Harry B Helmsley Charitable Trust.

    PubMed »

Aug 2020

  • Disparities in United States hospitalizations for serious infections in patients with and without opioid use disorder: A nationwide observational study.

    PLoS medicine
    08 07, 2020 17 (8) e1003247
    Vol. 17, Issue 8, Medline Page e1003247

    Authors: Kim JH, Fine DR, Li L, Kimmel SD, Ngo LH, Suzuki J, Price CN, Ronan MV, Herzig SJ

    Our findings suggest that among hospitalizations for some serious infections, those involving patients with OUD were associated with longer LOS, higher odds of discharge to post-acute care facilities or patient-directed discharge, and similar total hospital charges, despite lower daily charges. These findings highlight opportunities to improve care for patients with OUD hospitalized with serious infections, and to reduce the growing associated costs.

    PubMed »

  • Brain Death-Moving Beyond Consistency in the Diagnostic Criteria.


    Aug 03, 2020

    Authors: Truog RD, Krishnamurthy K, Tasker RC


    PubMed »

  • Distinct thalamocortical network dynamics are associated with the pathophysiology of chronic low back pain.

    Nature communications

    Aug 07, 2020 11 (1) 3948

    Vol. 11, Issue 1, Medline Page 3948

    Authors: Tu Y, Fu Z, Mao C, Falahpour M, Gollub RL, Park J, Wilson G, Napadow V, Gerber J, Chan ST, Edwards RR, Kaptchuk TJ, Liu T, Calhoun V, Rosen B, Kong J

    Thalamocortical dysrhythmia is a key pathology of chronic neuropathic pain, but few studies have investigated thalamocortical networks in chronic low back pain (cLBP) given its non-specific etiology and complexity. Using fMRI, we propose an analytical pipeline to identify abnormal thalamocortical network dynamics in cLBP patients and validate the findings in two independent cohorts. We first identify two reoccurring dynamic connectivity states and their associations with chronic and temporary pain. Further analyses show that cLBP patients have abnormal connectivity between the ventral lateral/posterolateral nucleus (VL/VPL) and postcentral gyrus (PoCG) and between the dorsal/ventral medial nucleus and insula in the less frequent connectivity state, and temporary pain exacerbation alters connectivity between the VL/VPL and PoCG and the default mode network in the more frequent connectivity state. These results extend current findings on thalamocortical dysfunction and dysrhythmia in chronic pain and demonstrate that cLBP pathophysiology and clinical pain intensity are associated with distinct thalamocortical network dynamics.

    PubMed »

  • District-level health system strengthening for universal health coverage: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study in rural Madagascar, 2014-2018.

    BMJ global health

    08 08, 2020 5 (12)

    Vol. 5, Issue 12,

    Authors: Garchitorena A, Miller AC, Cordier LF, Randriamanambintsoa M, Razanadrakato HR, Randriamihaja M, Razafinjato B, Finnegan KE, Haruna J, Rakotonirina L, Rakotozafy G, Raharimamonjy L, Atwood S, Murray MB, Rich M, Loyd T, Solofomalala GD, Bonds MH

    The results demonstrate improvements in care seeking and economic inequalities linked to the early stages of a HSS intervention in rural Madagascar. Additional improvements in this context of persistent geographical inequalities will require a stronger focus on community health.

    PubMed »

Jul 2020

Apr 2020

  • The Psychological Toll of Health Care Rationing Should Not Be Underestimated | Opinion

    Newsweek. Opinion
    04 06, 2020  

    Author: Sadath A. Sayeed

    The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly and radically disrupted any sense of normality in all aspects of medical practice in the United States. Rationing life-saving care is not something American doctors are accustomed to consciously consider in our daily working lives, let alone ever communicate to patients or their families. At most, we are taught a little about it, typically in school, as a part of a formal course in medical ethics.

    Newsweek »